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(Hobi)- Model Kawalan Jauh – Siri1: Cara Dan Kaedah Menjaga Injin Nitro

Posted by Welcome to Jay Twlight.Com on March 31, 2008

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Selamat bertemu lagi dan Salam Sejahtera sekali lagi. Para pembaca sekelian. Oleh kerana didalam tulisan saya yang lalu
saya telah menyentuh kepada satu tajuk yang berjudul Hobi, yang berhubung kait dengan peralatan Model Kawalan
Jauh seperti kereta, kapal terbang dan juga Helikopter jadi dalam tulisan saya kali saya akan meneruskan tulisan saya
sebagai kesinambungan pada tajuk yang telah saya kirimkan sebelum ini. Beberapa orang kawan saya yang telah membaca
Artikel saya sebelum ini telah menghubungi saya dan meminta saya untuk meneruskan penulisan yang
berkisar tentang tajuk ini untuk mendapatkan beberapa Tip Tip tentang penjagaan, dan cara cara mengoptimakan
Injin Nitro Model kawalan Jauh seperti yang saya sebutkan sebelum ini.
Untuk memudahkan anda menjalankan kerja kerja pemeliharan dan penjagaan beberapa perkara penting perlu
diambil kira seperti mempastkan Injin Nitro kereta anda sentiasa berada dalam keadaan terbaik. Dibawah ini saya telah
sertakan beberapa cara dan kaedah untuk menjaga dan memelihara Injin kereta anda agar ianya berfungsi dalam
keadaan Optima. Tulisan ini telah saya petik daripada seorang penulis yang pakar dalam bidang Hobi ini. Tulisan beliau
dalam bahasa English. Saya tidak dapat menterjemahkan seluruhan kandungan tulisan beliau ke dalam bahasa
Malaysia kerana, beberapa Istilah tidak mengizinkan untuk diterjemahkan kepada bahasa Malaysia kerana akan
memberi pengertian yang berlainan.Jadi saya pamerkan tulisan ini dalam keadaan asal dan saya yakin anda boleh
memahaminya dengan mudah.

Injin Kereta Kawalan Jauh / Setup

 

Air Tight Is A Must

In order for an engine to idle, transition and tune consistently it must be airtight- airtight meaning that no air can enter the engine except through the carburetor intake. Surprisingly, even brand new out-of-the-box high-end engines can have air leaks and until these leaks are found and eliminated, the engine won’t run consistently and cannot be precisely tuned. The good news is, several years ago I figured out an easy way to check for and fix air leaks. You’ll need the following:
• A small glass of soapy water

• A small brush

• About a foot of fuel tubing

Step 1. Be sure that the high-speed needle is open at least two turns out and the throttle is at fully open.
Step 2. Install one end of the fuel tubing on the carburetor nipple. You’re going to be blowing into the other end of the tubing to pressurize the engine crankcase.
Step 3. Place your thumb over the carburetor intake to prevent air from escaping, then blow into the fuel tubing while brushing soapy water around the base of the carburetor, on both sides of the pinch bolt, around the fuel fittings, at the high and low speed needle valves, around the front bearing and even around the back plate.If any bubbling occurs you’ve got an air leak. But don’t be alarmed. Fixing the leak is easy and your engine will run remarkably better and more consistently when you’ve eliminated these leaks.


The Fix

Brushing soapy water around all possible air leak points while pressurizing the case will easily identify air leaks.

 

The most common air leaks seem to occur around the pinch bolt. Applying a dab of RTV (or silicon) over both exposed sides of the pinch bolt will fix this type of leak. RTV is also great for sealing any leaks around the base of the carburetor. Simply remove the carburetor and run a small amount of RTV around the base of the carb where the leak occurred. Reinstall the carburetor and allow the RTV to ooze out between the crankcase and the carb body. For leaks around the high-speed needle valve fittings, usually retightening the high-speed needle assembly will take care of these. Leaks directly at the high speed or low speed needle usually means there’s a damaged O-ring that must be replaced. Many racers don’t realize that the front bearing can leak air. That’s why nearly every high-end engine uses a rubber sealed front ball bearing to not only keep out dirt, but also air. If your front bearing leaks air, it’s time for a bearing replacement.

This simple leak check can easily be done even when the engine is installed in a car. After you’ve done this test on several engines you’ll be surprised of two things: first, how often unwanted air leaks occur and second, how much better your engine runs, idles and tunes when it’s airtight. To run right it must be airtight!

Airtight Fuel system

The Fuel system must also be airtight. If the fuel tank, tank lid, fuel lines or filter has a leak then the same kind of tuning issues as described above will occur. While you can check the fuel system by using the same method of brushing soapy water onto the suspected offending area while blowing into the tank, I generally find it better to simply remove the tank from the car and submerse it in a sink of water while blowing into the vent line and plugging the fuel line. If bubbles are present you’ve got a leak.

An engine at full throttle produces about 6 to 8 psi in the vent line and conversely in the tank. By blowing really hard you’re also able to produce about 6 to 8 psi for a couple of seconds. If you’re able to blow hard enough to cause the tank lid to open slightly and leak, it’s time to replace the tank lid spring or bend more preload in the spring. The entire system (fuel tank, fuel filters, fuel lines, tank fittings, etc.) must be airtight to achieve consistent repeatable performance. I always that my fuel system is airtight when it’s new but also recheck it every time I rebuild a car after a race. It easy insurance plus soapy water is a good way to thoroughly clean the tank. Just be sure it’s totally dry before using it by flushing out any water left in the tank with fuel before installing it in you car.

Tuning in a Pinch

The pinch test.

Many racers find it difficult to properly tune the low speed needle. We’ve developed a method that makes it easy, even for beginners, to adjust the low speed needle to within 5% of peak performance and it’s done right on the bench. We call it the pinch test and here’s how it works.

Step 1. Start your engine and warm it up for about 30 seconds by revving the engine from idle to mid-throttle while holding the wheels off the ground.

Step 2. Allow the engine to idle for 10 seconds. If the low speed needle tuning is so far off that it won’t idle, simply bump the idle position higher until the engine will reliably run at a higher idle.

Step 3. With the engine at idle, pinch and hold the fuel line near the carburetor, cutting off the fuel flow and carefully listen to the engine rpm.

If the low speed needle is set correctly, the engine should increase rpm only slightly and then die.

If the engine increases several hundred rpm before dying, then the low speed needle is too rich and needs to be turned in.

If the rpm doesn’t increase at all and the engine simply dies, the low speed needle is set too lean and should be richened or turned out.

After doing this a few times you’ll get the hang of it, and tuning the low speed needle will become easy. The only way to get that last 5% performance on the low speed tune is through careful track testing. By evaluating the engine as it accelerates from a dead stop or out of slow corners during actual race conditions is the only way to get those last few percent of power from your engine. Variables like the clutch setting, gearing, traction, atmospheric conditions and even the car’s weight will have an effect on this last 5% of tuning performance, and the optimum setting can only be reached by careful on-track tuning.

Fine Tuning in a Punch

On high traction tracks instant throttle response and acceleration are the keys to being competitive. To get that last 5% of performance thru tuning, many top drivers and engine tuners use the punch test. Here’s how it works.

With the high speed needle properly set and the low speed needle set per the pinch test above, run several laps at race pace to bring the engine up to temperature. Now stop the car at the beginning of the main straight and allow it to idle while you count to 15. At the count of 15, hit the throttle instantly full punch while carefully listening to the engine and note the rate of acceleration. If you did a good job with the pinch test above and the high-speed needle is properly set as described below, the car should rocket off the line with a powerful, crisp consistent engine sound. The trick here is to tune the low speed needle for even greater acceleration and an even crisper throttle response. Do this punch test several times until your very familiar with the acceleration rate (it helps to judge the amount of wheel spin) and the sound of the engine as it accelerates to full throttle. Now lean the low speed needle 1 hour (or 1/12th of a turn) and do the punch test again. Is the engine’s acceleration rate and the crisp consistent sound better than in the previous test? Remember judging the wheel spin (the amount the wheels slip during heavy acceleration) is a good way to compare. If it’s better or there’s no change, lean the low speed needle 1 hour more and try the punch test again. At some point the engine will lean bog (hesitate) off the line during acceleration indicating that you’ve gone too far.

When you finally find this point through repeated punch tests then leaning the low speed needle one hour each time, richen the low speed needle 2 hours. This will be your engines peak setting giving maximum acceleration and throttle response for the specific conditions of the day. Just remember if you change anything, like gear ratios, clutch settings, exhaust systems, fuel, glow plugs and even changing atmospheric conditions like temperature and barometric will cause this optimum setting to change. Repeat the punch test often and especially just before a heat race to ensure maximum performance during the existing conditions.

The Dreaded Full Tank Lean Bog

If you’ve done much gas racing, you’ve probably encountered the dreaded lean bog that occurs right after a pit stop with a full tank of fuel. Right after the tank is filled, for about the next 3 or 4 laps the engine sags (lean bogs) when accelerating off of tight right-hand corners. On most tracks this happens when accelerating onto the straight. Seemingly, the lean bog magically goes away after a few laps but sure enough, after the next pit stop, it frustratingly returns-slowing lap times for several laps once again.
The key to eliminating full tank lean bogs is pressure tube position or adding a pressure reservoir as shown.

To solve this frustrating issue, it’s important to understand what’s causing it.
Here’s the scoop. As the throttle is released entering a turn, the pressure in the tank is now greater that the reduced pressure in the pipe. When the tank is full, some of the fuel sloshes up into the pressure line. The centrifugal forces encountered in a right hand turn further pulls the fuel into the pressure line, causing reduced pressure in the tank. When the throttle is cracked open to accelerate, the engine goes lean because of this reduced tank pressure and hence the dreaded lean bog occurs. The reason it only lasts for a couple of laps is first, as the fuel level goes down in the tank it’s less likely to slosh as much into the pressure line and second, as the fuel level goes down there is a larger open space in the tank that’s pressurized, maintaining adequate pressure long enough to prevent the low pressure lean bog problem. (If your exhaust system is mounted on the left side, as with some of the latest monster trucks, then this phenomenon will occur in left hand turns.)

The Fix

Keep the fuel out of the pressure line! That’s sometimes easier said than done. We’ve had the most success by rerouting the pressure line so that as it come off the pressure nipple, the tubing goes to the right side of the fuel tank, then makes a loop on the right side of the tank. This prevents the centrifugal force of a right hand turn from filling the pressure tube. We’ve also had good success by adding one of the big reservoirs (they look like a big aluminum fuel filter and are available from Mugen or OFNA) in the pressure line. Many manufacturers, like Mugen and Serpent, recognize this problem and are making special pressure pickups and tank lids with large open volumes in the lid itself. You may have noted that many top drivers’ cars have several loops of fuel tubing wrapped in their cars and wondered what was the purpose. Now you know. The key to fixing this issue is to experiment with pressure tube routing and, if necessary, installing a pressure reservoir in the pressure line.

Vapor Lock

Compressed CO2 sprayed directly onto the carburetor is a great way to prevent vapor lock during long main flame-outs.

If you’ve ever had your engine flame out after a reasonably long run and then found it nearly impossible to re-start, you may have experienced vapor lock. Vapor lock occurs most often in .12- and .15-size engines, especially when they’re enclosed in a body with a 1/10-scale gas sedan or stadium truck. Vapor lock normally occurs after the engine is shut off. Heat from the head and combustion chamber transfers through the crankcase, heating the carburetor to the point that the fuel that reaches the carburetor through the fuel line boils off. This makes it impossible to start the engine because it’s starved for fuel. The only way to get the engine to run is to cool the carburetor below the fuel’s boiling point. If you’re sport driving, you can simply wait 5 minutes for the carb to cool on it’s own and then restart. If you’re in the middle of an important long main, here are some creative ways racers have (including at the world championship level) cooled their carburetors preventing vapor lock:

1. A bottle of compressed CO2 (or air like those that can be purchased to operate airbrushes) with a nozzle attached, allowing cold CO2 to be directed over the carburetor even when the body is in place. We’ve seen several top-level race teams use this CO2 method anytime the engine flames out to prevent the possibility of a vapor lock.

2. By pulling the air filter and simply dumping fuel from the fuel bottle over the carburetor, usually bringing the temperature back to a tolerable level within a minute. Just be sure to avoid getting fuel on the brakes, radio equipment or tires or you could be in for a bad race day!

Original Post Written By: John Adams

«Nitro Engine Tuning

Sila layari Pautan diatas untuk mendapatkan maklumat lanjut berhubung Hobi Yang menyeronokkan ini. Sekian

JAY

For Jay Twilight.Com

 




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The Orgin Of The Name

Posted by Welcome to Jay Twlight.Com on March 25, 2008

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Origin of name

The name Star of the Season appears to have been given by the present owner of the diamond Sheik Ahmed Hassan Fitaihi, the renowned Saudi jeweler, and collector and connoisseur of diamonds, who purchased the stone in 1995 for a record sum of $ 16,500,000, the highest amount paid for a diamond at any auction in the world. The Sheik had named two other diamonds in his collection as The Star of the Desert, and The Star of Happiness, and another diamond as The Red Sea Star.

 

 

Characteristics of the stone

The diamond is a D-color, internally flawless, pear shaped stone, weighing 100.10 carats.

 

Early history of the diamond

The early history of the diamond such as the country of origin, mine of origin, date of discovery, weight of the rough stone, original owner of the diamond, etc. are not known, but the stone appears to be of South African origin and was cut by the internationally renowned diamond cutters The Steinmetz Group, which has its main diamond cutting facility in South Africa. The stone made its first appearance in May 1995 at a Sotheby’s auction in Geneva. The size of the diamond, its color, exceptional clarity, and the pear-shaped cut , all contributed in making this diamond a very rare and unusual stone, and the buyers who inspected the stone before the auctions were convinced of its uniqueness, and predicted a competitive bidding for its acquisition.

The auction hall was packed to capacity with many famous international bidders that included the Saudi jeweler, diamond collector, and connoisseur Sheik Ahmed Hassan Fitaihi. By the time auction started the atmosphere in the hall was fully charged and tense. The bidding was intense and competitive and Sheik Fitaihi was determined to acquire the diamond at any cost. The price of the diamond escalated rapidly, after the bidders tried to outbid one another, and finally the auctioneer knocked down the diamond in favor of Sheik Ahmed Hassan Fitaihi for a record sum of US $ 16,500,000. This turned out to be the highest amount paid for a diamond at any auction in the world. The 100.10-carat Star of the Season goes down in history as the most expensive diamond ever sold at an auction.

Immediately after the acquisition of the diamond by Sheik Fitaihi, an offer was made for the diamond at a price substantially higher than the purchase price, but being a collector and connoisseur of diamonds the Sheik turned down the offer.

Sheik Ahmed Hassan Fitaihi is presently the Chairman and the C.E.O. of the Fitaihi Company based in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The Sheik has become a force to be reckoned with at international jewelry auctions. The Sheik, together with Robert Mouawad of Mouawad Jewelers and Laurence Graff of Graff Diamonds, have been responsible for some of the astonishing and record diamond prices achieved in recent years.

 

History of the Fitaihi Company

Sheik Fitaihi is the heir to a successful business enterprise dealing in jewelry and established 100 years ago in 1907, in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. His grandfather opened a jewelry shop in Mecca in 1907. This was at a time when the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea, which included the Holy City of Mecca, was still under the rule of Sharif Hussain Ibn Ali, the king of Hejaz, who also declared himself Caliph in 1924. Two of Sharif Hussain’s sons also became kings. Abdallah his second son became King of Transjordan in 1921 and Faisal his eldest son became the King of Iraq. Sharif Hussain Ibn Ali claims his descent from the Hashemite clan of the Quraish tribe, the same clan to which the Holy Prophet Muhammad, the founder of the religion of Islam belonged.

The Sauds ruled much of Arabia in the 18th and 19th centuries but were later driven out of Arabia by the Rashids in 1880 and lived in exile in Kuwait. Ibn Saud the founder of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was then still an infant. In 1901, when Ibn Saud was 21, he led a small force of 40 camel men, and re-captured their old family capital of Riyadh, killing the Rashidi Governor of Riyadh in the process. Within 2 years the young Ibn Saud was able to re-conquer half of central Arabia. His rival Ibn Rashid sought and obtained Turkish help, and initially defeated the forces of Ibn Saud, in 1904, but was not able to drive him out of central Arabia. During world war 1, Ibn Saud signed a treaty with the British , agreeing to continue the fight against Ibn Rashid, who was being supported by the Turks, and accepting in return protectorate status of Britain. During the period 1920-22, Ibn Saud’s forces moved against that of Ibn Rashid, and defeated him and annexed his territory. Ibn Saud was now in control of a greater part of the Arabian Peninsular, except the Hejaz region along the Red Sea coast. In 1924, Ibn Saud’s forces captured Mecca and the whole of Hejaz was added to his dominions. In 1932 he formally unified his domains into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and he became the absolute monarch of the kingdom.

In 1933 he signed an agreement with an American oil company to prospect for oil in the kingdom, but it was only in March 1938, the company first struck oil in the kingdom. However with the outbreak of world war II, work on the oil fields virtually ceased. Exploitation of oil resumed again after the war. In 1950 Ibn Saud received only about $ 200,000 per annum as oil revenue, but in 3 years his income rose to $ 2,500,000 a week. The sky rocketing oil revenues set the stage for the economic and social development of the country and today the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , ranks as the world’s leading producer of oil.

After the formation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932, Sheik Fitaihi’s father moved his family and his business to the coastal city of Jeddah, the main port city of Saudi Arabia, and a commercial center over the centuries. Ahmed Hassan Fitaihi received his training as a businessman in his father’s shop in Jeddah, and eventually succeeded his father in managing the family business. Over the years he has built up a successful business empire, that is a leader in the jewelry trade in Saudi Arabia.

Sheik Ahmed Hassan Fitaihi later attended international jewelry auctions, and had successfully bid and acquired several famous and notable diamonds. His first acquisition was the 80.02-carat, emerald-cut, D-color internally flawless diamond of South African origin, which he purchased in New York in 1991 for $ 7,150,000. The diamond was named the ‘Jeddah bride” in honor of his beloved city. Other famous diamonds that were purchased by him include the following:-

(1) The Ice Queen (1991 Oct) 39.99 carat emerald-cut
a satellite diamond from Niarchos

(2) The Jeddah Bride (1991 Oct) 80.02-carat emerald-cut

(3) The Red Star (1992 Nov) 50.83 carat emerald-cut

(4) The Star of the Desert (1993 Apr) 66.29-carat pear shape

(5) The larger Arcot Diamond(1993 Nov) 30.99-carat pear shape

(6) The Heart OF the Desert (1994 Nov) 62.42-carat heart shape

(7) The Star of Happiness (1993 Nov) 100.36-carat radiant-cut

(8) The Star of the Season (1995 May) 100.10-carat pear shape

The Star of happiness is the largest diamond purchased by Sheik Fitaihi. It is a radiant-cut internally flawless, D-color stone weighing 100.36 carats, and having dimensions of 28.50 x 25.96 x 16.35 mm. He purchased this diamond for $11,800,000. at Geneva in November 1993. Most of the stones in Fitaihi’s collection, are colorless diamonds of D-color grade.

Sheik Ahmed Hassan Fitahi has also contributed generously towards projects that would benefit his community. He opened the Fitaihi centre in Jeddah in April 1984, and another center in Riyadh in 1993. He also initiated and supported a project ,which set up the International Medical Center (IMC) in Jeddah in the early 1990s, to fulfill his vision of setting up a state-of-the-art hospital to serve the community, in collaboration with the Cleveland Clinic Foundation.

 

Last transaction and present owner of the diamond

Since he purchased the diamond in May 1995 for $ 16.5 million, the Star of the Season remains the most prominent item in the magnificent collection of diamonds belonging to Sheik Ahmed Hassan Fitaihi, and being a keen collector and connoisseur of diamonds may remain so for the foreseeable future.

 

More about colorless diamond

Diamonds are crystalline forms of carbon, produced about 200 Km below the surface of the earth in the earth’s mantle about 3 billion years ago. Subsequently the diamonds were brought up to the surface of the earth during volcanic eruptions forming kimberlite and lamproite pipes.

If the diamond crystals are absolutely pure containing Carbon atoms only, and the crystals are perfectly formed without any distortions, the diamonds are absolutely colorless. Such diamonds are extremely rare and are known as D-color diamonds. The Star of the Season is an example of a D-color diamond. Other notable examples of D-color diamonds are Cullinan 1 & 11, Millennium Star and the Centenary diamond. In the G.I.A. color grading scale, D, E, and F grades are all colorless diamonds, and G, H, I, J are near colorless diamonds, with a slight yellowish tint. Colorless diamonds are only about 1-2 % of all natural diamonds. Majority of the diamonds mined are pale yellow to brown which is known as the normal color range. The main impurity in the diamond that causes the yellow to brown color is Nitrogen.

Diamonds are divided into two types depending on whether Nitrogen is present or absent in the crystal structure.

Type1 :-contain detectable quantities of Nitrogen

Type 11 :-Do not contain detectable quantities of Nitrogen.

Type 1 diamonds are again sub-divided into two :-

Type 1a :- Nitrogen atoms occur as groups or aggregates. 98% of all natural diamonds are type 1a.

Type 1b :- nitrogen atoms are scattered as single atoms. Less than 0.1 % of natural diamonds are type 1b.

Type 1a diamonds are further sub-divided into three.

Type 1aA- Nitrogen atoms occur as groups of 2-atoms (A- aggregates), which do not absorb visible light and do not affect the color of the diamonds. A-aggregates can quench fluorescence and therefore these diamonds are colorless and non- fluorescent.

Type 1aB- Nitrogen atoms occur as groups of 4-atoms (B-aggregates), which do not absorb visible light and do not affect the color of diamonds. However B-aggregates do not quench fluorescence and therefore these diamonds are colorless and strongly fluorescent.

Type 1aAB- Nitrogen atoms occur as A-aggregates, B-aggregates, and also N3 centers (groups of 3-atoms). N3 centers absorb visible light in the blue end of the spectrum giving rise to a pale yellow to brown color. The diamonds also show faint to medium fluorescence.

Type 1b:- Nitrogen atoms scattered as single atoms which can absorb visible light in the blue end of the spectrum giving rise to intense yellow colors such as fancy intense yellow and fancy vivid yellow colors. The rare canary yellow diamonds also belong to this group. egs. of canary yellow diamonds are Tiffany yellow, and Red Cross diamonds. These diamonds are less than 0.1 % of all natural diamonds and are extremely rare.

Type 11 diamonds that are Nitrogen-free are divided into two,

Type 11a:- These diamonds are absolutely pure consisting of Carbon atoms only and are absolutely colorless. They are known as D-color or top color diamonds. However E & F grades may also be included in this category. They are about 1-2 % of of all natural diamonds. However, a small percentage of colorless diamonds might be plastically deformed producing a variety of rare fancy colors such as red, pink, purple, orange, and brown.

Type 11b:- These diamonds are Nitrogen-free, but instead contain trace amounts of Boron, whose atoms are comparable in size to Carbon atoms, like Nitrogen atoms, and therefore can be easily accommodated in the diamond crystal. Boron atoms absorb visible light in the red, orange and yellow regions and therefore the diamonds appear to be blue. All naturally occurring blue diamonds are type 11b. However their occurrence is only 0.1 % of all natural diamonds and therefore extremely rare.

Thus colorless diamonds can be of three types :- type 1aA, type 1aB, and type 11a. Colorless diamonds may sometimes show a bluish tint caused by fluorescence.

 

List of D-color diamonds greater than 100 carats in descending order of weights

S/N

Name Carat Weight

Shape/Cut

1 Cullinan I 530.20 pear
2 CullinanII 317.40 cushion
3 Centenary 273.85 modified heart
4 Jubilee 245.35 cushion
5 Millennium Star 203.04 pear
6 La Luna 200.07 heart
7 Orlov 189.62 rose
8 Jacob-Victoria 184.50 oval
9 Regent 140.64 cushion
10 Paragon 137.82 7-sided
11 Premier Rose 137.02 pear
12 Queen of Holland 135.92 cushion
13 Zale Light of Peace 130.27 Pear
14 Niarchos 128.25 Pear
15 Portuguese 127.02 asscher
16 Jonker 125.35 emerald
17 Al-Nader 115.83 pear
18 Taj-i-Mah 115.06 moghul
19 Edna Star 115.00 emerald
20 Koh-i-Nur 108.93 oval
21 Mouawad Magic 108.81 emerald
22 Louis Cartier 107.07 pear
23 Star of Egypt 105.51 emerald
24 Mouawad Splendor 101.84 pear
25 Star of America 100.57 asscher
26 Star of Happiness 100.36 radiant
27 Star of the Season 100.10 pear

 

 

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Hobi ( Hobby) – Remote Control Model .Oleh Jay

Posted by Welcome to Jay Twlight.Com on March 19, 2008

my-self-photo2.jpg

Hai Bertemu sekali lagi di Laman Blog Jay Twlight.Com. Laman Blog dimana semuanya ada disini.

Para Pelayar dan Pembaca setia Blog yang saya hargai…kali ini sekali lagi saya ingin menulis sesuatu yang berlainan daripada tulisan tulisan saya sebelum ini. Harap pembaca setia semua boleh berkompromi dengan saya kerna kali ini tulisan saya mungkin terdapat sedikit bahasa bahasa Rojak. Ini disebabkan beberapa Istilah yang akan saya gunakan tidak mengizinkan saya untuk menterjemakan dalam bahasa Malaysia dengan membawa maksud yang betul. Jadi harap para pembaca semua harap maklum…

Ya tajuk artikel saya kali ini berjudul Hobi atau dalam istilah bahasa English “Hobby “… jika dilihat pengertian dalam kamus Dewan ianya bermaksud sesuatu aktiviti atau kegemaran dimasa lapang. Istilah yang disebutkan ini jika kita kaji ianya merangkumi bidang yang amat luas sekali…..kerana sesuatu bentuk Hobi yang saya maksudkan boleh dalam apa saja bentuk dan aktiviti yang digemari setiap individu. Ada yang menjadikan aktiviti memancing sebagai satu Hobi, mungkin mengumpul barang barang antik juga boleh dijadikan sebagai satu bentuk Hobi. Tak kurang juga aktiviti lasak seperti mendaki gunung menjadi kegemarangan segelintir yang inginkan cabaran…. jadi sekali lihat memang susah untuk dihitung berapa banyak bentuk aktiviti yang boleh diamalkan dan menjadikan ianya satu bentuk Hobi yang kita minati.

Opps..tapi sebelum itu kepada semua pembaca salam sejahtera ” and May God Bless you all”. Baiklah ..mungkin para pembaca pernah mendengar apa yang disebut sebagai permainan” Remote Control Model” atau permainan model kawalan jauh? Kebelakangan ini dinegara kita Malaysia mula diserang dengan satu lagi demam kegilaan selepas aktiviti Mat Rempit , kali ini pula dalam dunia permotoran apa yang disebut sebagai Drifting… saya rasa anda semua pernah mendengarnya kan?. Selaku peminat ianya merupakan satu aktiviti yang amat mengasikkan dan menyeronokkan bukan saja kepada pemandu tapi juga kepada penonton. Aktiviti yang saya maksudkan biasanya dilakukan dijalankan dijalan raya kita terutama sekali dibandar bandar besar pada waktu malam apabila bilangan kenderaan dijalan raya mula berkurangan. Tapi ada juga yang menjalankan aktiviti ini secara sah dan tidak menyalahi undang undang melalui Kelab Kelab permotoran yang berdaftar. Saya bukannya “Anti” kepada aktiviti Drift ini…..kerana saya sendiri pun amat meminatinya dan mengamalkan aktiviti riadah ini tapi dalam bentuk miniature…… yakni dengan mengunakan Model kenderan miniature dalam berskala 1/8 atau 1/10 dengan mengunakan alat kawalan jauh. Beberapa buah Kelab sedang tumbuh dikebanyakkan tempat di Malaysia ini dimana aktiviti ini dijalankan. Disamping ianya tidak membahayakan diri Pemandu ( Anda yang mengawal ) serta peminat peminat yang menonton , serta kemungkinan merosakkan harta benda awam seperti papan papan tanda serta permukaan Jalan Raya awam, aktiviti ini juga memberikan keseronokan dan kepuasan yang tak kurang hebatnya kepada yang mengemarinya. Sekiranya anda telah mempunyai kemahiran untuk mengawal kenderaan kawalan jauh anda, teknik memandu cara Drifting boleh dilakukan seperti kereta biasa malah kesannya ianya lebih mengasikkan lagi. Kesan Drift keatas Model miniature ini akan lebih hebat sekiranya anda mampu untuk membeli dan memasang sejenis alat yang digelar “Drift Assist ie. D’Box” dari pengeluar HPI . Di tepi laman Blog ini saya telah pautkan beberapa koleksi Video Klip yang menunjukkan keseronokkan aktiviti ini untuk anda layari dan melihat sendiri apa yang anda boleh dilakukan didalam dunia miniature permotoran ini.

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Satu lagi cabang permainan Model Kawalan Jauh yang boleh anda ceburi ialah alat permainan Model Kapal Terbang dan Helikopter. Berbagai bagai jenis model dan jenis yang boleh kita miliki mengikut kemampuan. Sekiranya anda kurang mampu anda boleh mencuba membeli Model kapal terbang yang mengunakan kuasa Elektrik atau pun kuasa injin Nitro. Mungkin kos untuk memulakan Hobi ini akan cuma dalam lingkungan Ringgit Malaysia ratusan atau pun seribu lebih keatas jauh lebih murah jika kita mengunakan kenderaan kita sendiri yang telah diubahsuai untuk mendapatkan kesan Drift yang diinginkan. Setelah mempunyai kemahiran dan minat yang lebih mendalam bolehlah beredar ke Kategori Kapal terbang yang dijalankan oleh kuasa Jet Turbine. Yes I am talking a real Jet Turbine Engine tapi dalam skala miniature. Ini mungkin memakan perbelanjan yang agak tinggi….. Tapi sekiranya minat itu telah ada , kos mungkin akan merupakan perkara kedua bukan…? Correct me if I’am wrong. Saya pernah terbaca sebuah artikel dimana seorang kaki pancing sanggup membeli peralatan memancing yang berharga ribuan ringgit semata mata kerana minat yang kuat atas Hobi memancing ini.helicopter450sev2-banner.jpg
Satu perkara yang perlu saya ingatkan disini…. Permainan model model kawalan jauh ini bukanlah dikategorikan sebagai alat permainan(Toys) yang boleh kita berikan kepada anak anak kita kerana ianya dikategorikan sebagai Adults Toys ( Jangan salah faham ok?) / permainan untuk orang dewasa. Mengapa saya mengatakan sedemikian kerana dengan menceburi aktiviti ini, para peminat Hobi ini akan belajar segala macam teknik seperti membuka dan memasang bahagian bahagian ( Parts) atau pun memperbaiki dan menjaga Injin sama seperti kita menjaga kenderaan sebenar. Sekiranya anda bercadang untuk membeli pakej peralatan kawalan jauh ini, ada dua kaedah yang anda boleh lakukan iaitu membeli dalam pakej Body Kit( Unassembled) atau pun pakej RTR( Ready to Run). Seperti Model kereta Nitro ianya dijalankan dengan mengunakan injin miniature jenis “Two Stroke Engine” yang dilengkapi dengan alat Curburetor yang perlu diFine Tuning untuk mendapatkan kuasa optima. Begitu juga dengan Model kapal terbang…. Jenis yang dijalankan dengan injin Nitro seakan sama dengan injin kereta, tapi sekiranya kita mampu membeli jenis yang mengunakan kuasa Jet Turbine Engine….tak tahulah mungkin kita terpaksa mengikuti beberapa kursus daripada Jurutera Aeronotikal untuk mempelajari cara cara memasang dan memperbaiki injin Jet Turbine….disamping belajar cara cara menerbangkan Jet Pejuang daripada Juru Terbang yang bertauliah.

Apa pun tujuan saya menulis artikel ini yang menjurus kepada topik Hobi yang saya sebutkan diatas antara lain cuba memberi kesedaran kepada rakan rakan diluar sana bahawa masih ada satu bentuk Hobi yang sihat yang boleh kita ceburi yang akan memberikan kita Trill dan Kepuasan yang hampir sama…. tanpa harus was was akan menjadi mangsa kena cekup oleh pihak berkuasa kerana menyalahi peraturan Jalan Raya dan merosakkan harta awam. Di dunia miniature permotoran ini kita tidak perlu kuathir kepada sesiapa kerna ianya boleh dilakukan dimana mana saja kawasan kosong seperti tempat letak kereta atau taman taman permainan. Dibawah ini saya tinggalkan beberapa alamat Laman Web pembekal pembekal tempatan dan juga Luar Negara yang anda boleh layari. Mungkin disini anda boleh mendapati sesuatu yang anda minati.

banner-tawaran-bio-asli.gif1). Hobby Performance Centre ( Semanjung Malaysia )

2). Niko Malaysia.Com (Semanjung Malaysia)

3). Diahua General Store ( Sabah )

4). RC.Smart MArketing Sdn Bhd(Semanjung Malaysia)

Pembekal Luar Negara

1).RC Universe.Com

2). HPI.Com

3).Trend Times.Com

Itulah tadi sebahagian daripada pembekal tempatan dan juga luar Negara yang anda boleh layari… Mungkin diluar sana masih banyak lagi Pembekal Pembekal yang kita tidak ketahui… Selamat menceburi Hobi ini dan jumpa anda di gelangang gelangang perlumbahan..Salam Sejahtera sekali lagi kepada anda semua. Sekian…

JAY

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RAKYAT TELAH BERBICARA :-Oleh Jay

Posted by Welcome to Jay Twlight.Com on March 12, 2008

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      Assalamualikum dan bertemu lagi di Laman Blog Jay Twilight.Com. Anda semua apa khabar? tentunya semua sehat sehat dan lega dengan apa yang baru berlalu? Ya kini bahang panas Pilihan Raya Umum kali ke 12 yang telah menghantui kita beberapa minggu kebelakangan kini telah pun berlalu dan sekali lagi kita telah melihat hasil dari apa yang rakyat inginkan.

      Para pembaca yang saya hargai jika beberapa tulisan saya yang lalu kesemuanya menjurus kepada cara cara dan kaedah penjanaan pendapatan tambahan dan sebagainya, tapi kali ini saya ingin menulis artikel saya yang berorientasikan kepada suasana Politik kita sejak kebelakangan ini sehingga berakhirnya Pilihan Raya Umum baru baru ini. Sebelum itu ingin saya perjelaskan saya bukanlah seorang penulis atau penanalisis Politik , ini merupakan penulisan saya yang julung julung kali berkisar ke isu sebegini , jadi tentu sekali banyak kelemahan dari segi penggunaan bahasa , Istilah Politik , ulasan dan sususan ayat. Harap para pembaca setia diLaman Blog ini sedia maklum. Saya amat mengharapkan pendapat dan komen komen anda berhubung tulisan saya ini demi memperbaiki lagi teknik penulisan saya dimasa masa yang akan mendatang. Saya akan cuba menulis artikel ini dengan berpendirian selaku penulis ” Neutral ” , dengan ertikata lain tidak akan menyebelahi mana mana pihak.

      Keputusan pilihan raya yang mengecewakan dalam sejarah gabungan perikatan yang telah sekian lama BERTAPAK UMBI dan memonopoli sebahagian besar Negeri didalam Malaysia sejak dulu , kini terbukti akibat dari kesan ” Wind Of Change ” yang telah diwar warkan sebelum ini . Ini terbukti dengan bertambahnya bilangan Negeri yang tewas ditangan pencabar dari parti lawan dan kini jatuh ketangan pihak Pembangkang . Beberapa buah Negeri yang selama ini boleh dikatakan sebagai Kubu kuat Barisan Nasional telah jatuh ketangan pihak Pembangkang dalam sekilip mata saja atas kesan dan bukti bahawa Hak Rakyat telah dilaksanakan. Apa yang dapat kita lihat inilah yang dikatakan” Yang Dikejar Tak Dapat Yang Di Kandung Keciciran“. Dalam kegairahan dan ketamakkan mengejar dan ingin menawan Negeri Kelantan , jentera Barisan Nasional telah leka untuk mempertahan kubu kuat yang sedia ada sehingga gagal mempertahankan apa yang telah dimiliki sebelum ini dan kehilangan pula beberapa buah Negeri lagi ketangan Parti Pembangkang.

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      Saya ingin merujuk kepada petikan dari sebuah artikel berbahasa English yang berbunyi ” Malaysia’s premier has no plan to step down after leading his ruling coalition to its worst-ever election disaster in which the opposition Islamists and reformists won control of five of the nation’s 13 states. Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi’s multi-racial National Front coalition won just a simple majority in parliament, and his future as leader is in doubt after he watched a record majority collapse to the weakest level ever.” Dari petikkan artikel berkenaan kepada rakyat yang ingin melihat perubahan dan ingin terus mempertahankan Intergrasi Nasional dan yang paling penting menyatukan semula kepercayaan dan keyakinan orang Melayu khasnya , yang telah menikmati kemajuan yang telah dicapai dan dikecapi hasil pengorbanan Pemimpin Pemimpin terdahulu, saranan untuk Pemimpin tertinggi mengundurkan diri harus dikaji semula dan pihak berkenaan pula perlu akur dengan kehendak semasa Rakyat jelata. Rakyat kini ingin melihat sesuatu perubahan dalam corak kepimpinan selepas the “Lagendary Tun.Dr.Mahathir Mohammad” yang sejak kebelakang ini telah banyak memperlihatkan pertadbiran yang lemah, berat sebelah dan sikap para pemimpin yang semakin Egoist.

      The Rich PomIsu utama seperti kenaikan harga minyak dan barang keperluan asas yang tidak terkawal sejak kebelakangan ini , semuanya memberi kesan dan impak yang berat kepada Rakyat keseluruhannya, telah membuat rakyat semakin hilang kepercayaan terhadap kepimpinan yang ada kini. Disamping itu kritikan kritikan lantang terhadap Pemimpin berkaliber sebelum ini oleh kepimpinan kepimpinan baru yang Egoist, secara tidak langsung menaikkan kemarahan dan kebencian terhadap pemimpin sekarang. Kesannya ” Kerana Nila Setitik Rosak Santan Sebelangga“. Itulah yang berlaku kemarahan rakyat telah dibuktikan melalui pilihanan yang telah ditunjukkan melalui pilihan raya baru baru ini . Tapi apa yang kita lihat seperti yang dijelaskan dalam petikkan artikel itu lagi “But Abdullah had no plan to quit, his spokesman said yesterday, despite urging by predecessor Mahathir Mohamad that the prime minister must take responsibility for the election defeat…..” dan sebaliknya pula meminta supaya Rakyat bertenang dan bersabar masa akan merubah keadaan.

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      Rakyat boleh bertenang dan boleh saja meneruskan penghidupan seperti biasa, tapi hakikatnya rintihan dan maasalah yang sebelum ini dirasai adakah akan mendapat pembelaan dari yang dibertanggunjawabkan? Si kaya akan terus diberi peluang menjadi lebih kaya dan si miskin akan terus menjadi miskin tanpa pembelaan . Peluang peluang perniagaan akan terus diagihkan kepada mereka mereka yang rapat dan dikenali sahaja dan bukan dilihat dari apa yang mereka dan anda tahu…. Pemberian Kontrak Kontrak Mega secara ” Direct Award ” harus dihapuskan serta merta kerana disinilah pengaliran Kazanah Negara dibelanjakan secara pembaziran tanpa kawalan dan pemantauan. Kontrak Kontrak Konsesi yang telah diberikan kepada mereka yang berkepentingan harus dikaji semula kerana ianya tidak berpihak kepada Kerajaan hanya bertujuan memenuhi poket segelintir disamping mutu kerja yang diragui dan Sub Standard.

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      Kepada pihak Parti Pembangkang seperti PAS , PKR dan DAP anda semua haruslah bersatu padu untuk menjadi Pembangkang yang lebih kuat lagi di Dewan Rakyat dan juga Dewan Palimen…. Mandat untuk mentadbir Negeri dibawa tiket Pembangkang telah pun diberikan kepada anda untuk membuktikan kepada Rakyat bahawa ” The real Wind Of Change is finally in sight“. Buktikan apa yang anda boleh lakukan kepada rakyat yang telah memberi mandat kepada anda semua. Dengan suara pembangkang yang lebih lantang kita penuh keyakinan sesuatu keputusan yang diambil oleh pihak Pemerintah kelak tidak lagi akan dibuat sewenang wenangnya. ” We the Rakyat want to see the real Demokrasi being implemented this time ever….”. Kita tidak mahu lagi melihat wakil wakil rakyat yang hadir keDewan Rakyat atau Dewan Parlimen sekadar memenuhi Kaota dan menghabiskan masa dengan tidor dibelakang kerusi empok Dewan “as back bencher” seperti yang dilakukan oleh segelintir wakil Rakyat Parti Pemerintah sebelum ini serta menuntut Elaun percuma . Kini rakyat sentiasa boleh melihat apa yang berlaku didalam Dewan Rakyat dan Dewan Parlimen , jadi jalankan tugas anda sepertimana yang telah diamanatkan. Gelaran Y.B. yang anda perolehi perlu ditukar dari pada gelaran Yang Berhormat kepada gelaran Yang Berkhidmat.

      Apa pun demam pilihan raya telah pun berlalu dan kita pun perlu menjalankan tugasan harian untuk mencari rezeki seperti biasa. Saya akan menutup tulisan saya disini kerana tujuan pengujudan Laman Blog saya ini sebenarnya berorientasikan Penjanaan Pendapatan ( Business Oriented ), jadi tulisan saya sebegini mungkin merupakan tulisan saya yang pertama dan terakhir anda akan lihak di Laman Blog ini. Didalam artikel saya yang akan datang, saya akan menulis semula artikel yang menjurus kepada tujuan asal saya.
      Untuk itu Salam untuk semua dan selamat menjalankan penghidupan anda… PEACE
      JAY,
      For: Jay Twilight.Com

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      Seribu Cara Menjana Pendapatan Melalui Internet. Oleh Jay

      Posted by Welcome to Jay Twlight.Com on February 28, 2008

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      Assalamualaikum Selamat bertemu sekali lagi .Telah agak lama saya tidak menulis kehalaman Blog saya ini. Mungkin kebelakangan ini saya agak sibuk kerana mengendalikan Laman Blog saya untuk menjalankan kerja kerja pengemaskinian, disamping mengamalkan kaedah kaedah yang disarankan untuk tujuan menjana dan menambah pendapatan tambahan melalui Laman Blog saya di Internet ini.Engineering Software Store


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      Sekiranya anda adalah tergolong daripada peminat yang gemar melayari Internet, saya penuh yakin mungkin anda banyak melihat dan mendengar berbagai bagai cara untuk kita mencari, mencuba dan menjana pendapatan tambahan melalui Internet. Mungkin banyak kaedah kaedah SPAM yang anda pernah temui sebelum ini tapi tidak kurang juga kaedah kaedah bernas yang dishorkan dan boleh diamalkan dan dipraktikkan bagi membantu kita menjana pendapatan tambahan tanpa banyak kerja. Kaedah kaedah seperti promosi dan penjualan e -book melalui Internet, Kaedah Adsense, Kaedah Adwords, Affiliate Programs dan Web Site Promotional ( Pengiklanan) adalah sebahagian kecil daripada ratusan cara yang boleh kita ceburi. Jika anda perhatikan tataatur dan kandungan yang terdapat dalam Laman Blog saya ini mungkin berbeza daripada laman laman Blog yang pernah anda temui sebelum ini. Laman Blog saya ini bukanlah laman Blog yang berorentasi kepada perbincangan seperti Forum /Politik dan sebagainya tapi ianya lebih menjurus kepada Business Oriented Blog. Hamparan Banner Banner dan Blogroll yang telah saya pautkan kepada Laman Blog ini semuanya menjurus kepada tujuan penjanaan pendapatan tambahan dan bukannya untuk tujuan perhiasan semata mata , sekiranya anda faham apa yang saya maksudkan. Tidak perlu hairan kerna semua ini adalah merupakan salah satu tatacara Kaedah Kaedah yang telah saya sebutkan tadi. Tapi rashia sebenar bagaimana untuk menghasilkan pendapatan disebalik semua ini anda perlu mencari jawapannya sendiri atau pun bertanya kepada orang yang arif akan perkara ini. Saya ingin mempelawa anda untuk sama sama berkongsi Rahsia ini…..

      Mungkin kepada anda yang baru didalam dunia Internet istilah istilah yang baru saya sebutkan tadi adalah sesuatu yang asing bagi anda , tapi sekiranya kita telah memahami pengertiannya secara mendalam, kita akan mendapati kaedah kaedah yang disebutkan tadi adalah merupakan beberapa cara untuk mambantu kita menjana pendapatan tambahan tanpa perlu mengeluar tenaga dan modal yang banyak. Sila perhatikan Banner dibawah ini dan dari isini anda mungkin anda akan dapat membongkar Rashianya kenapa saya perlu menyimpan ianya disini. Tentu ada sebab dan alasannya kan?

      Selama ini mungkin telah banyak yang berjaya dengan mengamalkan kaedah kaedah diatas secara diam diam dan tidak ingin berkongsi Rashia ini kepada anda diluar sana, tapi bagi saya sesuatu yang berguna dan berfaedah haruslah dikongsi bersama. Saya tidak akan memberi tahu apa yang telah saya perolehi setakat ini selepas mengikuti kaedah kaedah yang saya sebutkan tadi , biarlah anda sendiri yang mencari jawapannya. Sekiranya anda telah mencuba dan berjaya anda hanya perlu memaklumkan dan berkongsi kejayaan anda dengan saya dengan mengirim e – mail ke alamat e -mail saya seperti tertara dibawah ini. Walau bagaimana pun sekiranya anda perlu mengatahui kaedah kaedah yang telah saya sebutkan tadi dengan lebih lanjut saya akan tinggalkan alamat e -mail saya dibawah ini untuk anda mengemukakan pertanyaan. Insaallah saya akan cuba dan memberi penjelasan secara terperinci kepada anda dengan bayaran…. Free Of Charge. Selamat mencuba dan JUMPA ANDA DIPUNCAK KEJAYAAN.

      Alamat e -mail saya : ahyarrabeka@yahoo.com.my

      Sekian untuk kali ini

       

      JAY

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      Kaki Joran Dan Mat Motor

      Posted by Welcome to Jay Twlight.Com on February 15, 2008

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      * MALAYSIA HERE I COME…….. CLIK HERE TO FIND OUT :http://www.viewmalaysia.com/

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      Your Internet Shooping Malls — Go For it

      Posted by Welcome to Jay Twlight.Com on February 14, 2008

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      Origin of name

      The name Star of the Season appears to have been given by the present owner of the diamond Sheik Ahmed Hassan Fitaihi, the renowned Saudi jeweler, and collector and connoisseur of diamonds, who purchased the stone in 1995 for a record sum of $ 16,500,000, the highest amount paid for a diamond at any auction in the world. The Sheik had named two other diamonds in his collection as The Star of the Desert, and The Star of Happiness, and another diamond as The Red Sea Star.

       

       

      Characteristics of the stone

      The diamond is a D-color, internally flawless, pear shaped stone, weighing 100.10 carats.

       

      Early history of the diamond

      The early history of the diamond such as the country of origin, mine of origin, date of discovery, weight of the rough stone, original owner of the diamond, etc. are not known, but the stone appears to be of South African origin and was cut by the internationally renowned diamond cutters The Steinmetz Group, which has its main diamond cutting facility in South Africa. The stone made its first appearance in May 1995 at a Sotheby’s auction in Geneva. The size of the diamond, its color, exceptional clarity, and the pear-shaped cut , all contributed in making this diamond a very rare and unusual stone, and the buyers who inspected the stone before the auctions were convinced of its uniqueness, and predicted a competitive bidding for its acquisition.

      The auction hall was packed to capacity with many famous international bidders that included the Saudi jeweler, diamond collector, and connoisseur Sheik Ahmed Hassan Fitaihi. By the time auction started the atmosphere in the hall was fully charged and tense. The bidding was intense and competitive and Sheik Fitaihi was determined to acquire the diamond at any cost. The price of the diamond escalated rapidly, after the bidders tried to outbid one another, and finally the auctioneer knocked down the diamond in favor of Sheik Ahmed Hassan Fitaihi for a record sum of US $ 16,500,000. This turned out to be the highest amount paid for a diamond at any auction in the world. The 100.10-carat Star of the Season goes down in history as the most expensive diamond ever sold at an auction.

      Immediately after the acquisition of the diamond by Sheik Fitaihi, an offer was made for the diamond at a price substantially higher than the purchase price, but being a collector and connoisseur of diamonds the Sheik turned down the offer.

      Sheik Ahmed Hassan Fitaihi is presently the Chairman and the C.E.O. of the Fitaihi Company based in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The Sheik has become a force to be reckoned with at international jewelry auctions. The Sheik, together with Robert Mouawad of Mouawad Jewelers and Laurence Graff of Graff Diamonds, have been responsible for some of the astonishing and record diamond prices achieved in recent years.

       

      History of the Fitaihi Company

      Sheik Fitaihi is the heir to a successful business enterprise dealing in jewelry and established 100 years ago in 1907, in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. His grandfather opened a jewelry shop in Mecca in 1907. This was at a time when the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea, which included the Holy City of Mecca, was still under the rule of Sharif Hussain Ibn Ali, the king of Hejaz, who also declared himself Caliph in 1924. Two of Sharif Hussain’s sons also became kings. Abdallah his second son became King of Transjordan in 1921 and Faisal his eldest son became the King of Iraq. Sharif Hussain Ibn Ali claims his descent from the Hashemite clan of the Quraish tribe, the same clan to which the Holy Prophet Muhammad, the founder of the religion of Islam belonged.

      The Sauds ruled much of Arabia in the 18th and 19th centuries but were later driven out of Arabia by the Rashids in 1880 and lived in exile in Kuwait. Ibn Saud the founder of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was then still an infant. In 1901, when Ibn Saud was 21, he led a small force of 40 camel men, and re-captured their old family capital of Riyadh, killing the Rashidi Governor of Riyadh in the process. Within 2 years the young Ibn Saud was able to re-conquer half of central Arabia. His rival Ibn Rashid sought and obtained Turkish help, and initially defeated the forces of Ibn Saud, in 1904, but was not able to drive him out of central Arabia. During world war 1, Ibn Saud signed a treaty with the British , agreeing to continue the fight against Ibn Rashid, who was being supported by the Turks, and accepting in return protectorate status of Britain. During the period 1920-22, Ibn Saud’s forces moved against that of Ibn Rashid, and defeated him and annexed his territory. Ibn Saud was now in control of a greater part of the Arabian Peninsular, except the Hejaz region along the Red Sea coast. In 1924, Ibn Saud’s forces captured Mecca and the whole of Hejaz was added to his dominions. In 1932 he formally unified his domains into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and he became the absolute monarch of the kingdom.

      In 1933 he signed an agreement with an American oil company to prospect for oil in the kingdom, but it was only in March 1938, the company first struck oil in the kingdom. However with the outbreak of world war II, work on the oil fields virtually ceased. Exploitation of oil resumed again after the war. In 1950 Ibn Saud received only about $ 200,000 per annum as oil revenue, but in 3 years his income rose to $ 2,500,000 a week. The sky rocketing oil revenues set the stage for the economic and social development of the country and today the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , ranks as the world’s leading producer of oil.

      After the formation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932, Sheik Fitaihi’s father moved his family and his business to the coastal city of Jeddah, the main port city of Saudi Arabia, and a commercial center over the centuries. Ahmed Hassan Fitaihi received his training as a businessman in his father’s shop in Jeddah, and eventually succeeded his father in managing the family business. Over the years he has built up a successful business empire, that is a leader in the jewelry trade in Saudi Arabia.

      Sheik Ahmed Hassan Fitaihi later attended international jewelry auctions, and had successfully bid and acquired several famous and notable diamonds. His first acquisition was the 80.02-carat, emerald-cut, D-color internally flawless diamond of South African origin, which he purchased in New York in 1991 for $ 7,150,000. The diamond was named the ‘Jeddah bride” in honor of his beloved city. Other famous diamonds that were purchased by him include the following:-

      (1) The Ice Queen (1991 Oct) 39.99 carat emerald-cut
      a satellite diamond from Niarchos

      (2) The Jeddah Bride (1991 Oct) 80.02-carat emerald-cut

      (3) The Red Star (1992 Nov) 50.83 carat emerald-cut

      (4) The Star of the Desert (1993 Apr) 66.29-carat pear shape

      (5) The larger Arcot Diamond(1993 Nov) 30.99-carat pear shape

      (6) The Heart OF the Desert (1994 Nov) 62.42-carat heart shape

      (7) The Star of Happiness (1993 Nov) 100.36-carat radiant-cut

      (8) The Star of the Season (1995 May) 100.10-carat pear shape

      The Star of happiness is the largest diamond purchased by Sheik Fitaihi. It is a radiant-cut internally flawless, D-color stone weighing 100.36 carats, and having dimensions of 28.50 x 25.96 x 16.35 mm. He purchased this diamond for $11,800,000. at Geneva in November 1993. Most of the stones in Fitaihi’s collection, are colorless diamonds of D-color grade.

      Sheik Ahmed Hassan Fitahi has also contributed generously towards projects that would benefit his community. He opened the Fitaihi centre in Jeddah in April 1984, and another center in Riyadh in 1993. He also initiated and supported a project ,which set up the International Medical Center (IMC) in Jeddah in the early 1990s, to fulfill his vision of setting up a state-of-the-art hospital to serve the community, in collaboration with the Cleveland Clinic Foundation.

       

      Last transaction and present owner of the diamond

      Since he purchased the diamond in May 1995 for $ 16.5 million, the Star of the Season remains the most prominent item in the magnificent collection of diamonds belonging to Sheik Ahmed Hassan Fitaihi, and being a keen collector and connoisseur of diamonds may remain so for the foreseeable future.

       

      More about colorless diamond

      Diamonds are crystalline forms of carbon, produced about 200 Km below the surface of the earth in the earth’s mantle about 3 billion years ago. Subsequently the diamonds were brought up to the surface of the earth during volcanic eruptions forming kimberlite and lamproite pipes.

      If the diamond crystals are absolutely pure containing Carbon atoms only, and the crystals are perfectly formed without any distortions, the diamonds are absolutely colorless. Such diamonds are extremely rare and are known as D-color diamonds. The Star of the Season is an example of a D-color diamond. Other notable examples of D-color diamonds are Cullinan 1 & 11, Millennium Star and the Centenary diamond. In the G.I.A. color grading scale, D, E, and F grades are all colorless diamonds, and G, H, I, J are near colorless diamonds, with a slight yellowish tint. Colorless diamonds are only about 1-2 % of all natural diamonds. Majority of the diamonds mined are pale yellow to brown which is known as the normal color range. The main impurity in the diamond that causes the yellow to brown color is Nitrogen.

      Diamonds are divided into two types depending on whether Nitrogen is present or absent in the crystal structure.

      Type1 :-contain detectable quantities of Nitrogen

      Type 11 :-Do not contain detectable quantities of Nitrogen.

      Type 1 diamonds are again sub-divided into two :-

      Type 1a :- Nitrogen atoms occur as groups or aggregates. 98% of all natural diamonds are type 1a.

      Type 1b :- nitrogen atoms are scattered as single atoms. Less than 0.1 % of natural diamonds are type 1b.

      Type 1a diamonds are further sub-divided into three.

      Type 1aA- Nitrogen atoms occur as groups of 2-atoms (A- aggregates), which do not absorb visible light and do not affect the color of the diamonds. A-aggregates can quench fluorescence and therefore these diamonds are colorless and non- fluorescent.

      Type 1aB- Nitrogen atoms occur as groups of 4-atoms (B-aggregates), which do not absorb visible light and do not affect the color of diamonds. However B-aggregates do not quench fluorescence and therefore these diamonds are colorless and strongly fluorescent.

      Type 1aAB- Nitrogen atoms occur as A-aggregates, B-aggregates, and also N3 centers (groups of 3-atoms). N3 centers absorb visible light in the blue end of the spectrum giving rise to a pale yellow to brown color. The diamonds also show faint to medium fluorescence.

      Type 1b:- Nitrogen atoms scattered as single atoms which can absorb visible light in the blue end of the spectrum giving rise to intense yellow colors such as fancy intense yellow and fancy vivid yellow colors. The rare canary yellow diamonds also belong to this group. egs. of canary yellow diamonds are Tiffany yellow, and Red Cross diamonds. These diamonds are less than 0.1 % of all natural diamonds and are extremely rare.

      Type 11 diamonds that are Nitrogen-free are divided into two,

      Type 11a:- These diamonds are absolutely pure consisting of Carbon atoms only and are absolutely colorless. They are known as D-color or top color diamonds. However E & F grades may also be included in this category. They are about 1-2 % of of all natural diamonds. However, a small percentage of colorless diamonds might be plastically deformed producing a variety of rare fancy colors such as red, pink, purple, orange, and brown.

      Type 11b:- These diamonds are Nitrogen-free, but instead contain trace amounts of Boron, whose atoms are comparable in size to Carbon atoms, like Nitrogen atoms, and therefore can be easily accommodated in the diamond crystal. Boron atoms absorb visible light in the red, orange and yellow regions and therefore the diamonds appear to be blue. All naturally occurring blue diamonds are type 11b. However their occurrence is only 0.1 % of all natural diamonds and therefore extremely rare.

      Thus colorless diamonds can be of three types :- type 1aA, type 1aB, and type 11a. Colorless diamonds may sometimes show a bluish tint caused by fluorescence.

       

      List of D-color diamonds greater than 100 carats in descending order of weights

      S/N

      Name Carat Weight

      Shape/Cut

      1 Cullinan I 530.20 pear
      2 CullinanII 317.40 cushion
      3 Centenary 273.85 modified heart
      4 Jubilee 245.35 cushion
      5 Millennium Star 203.04 pear
      6 La Luna 200.07 heart
      7 Orlov 189.62 rose
      8 Jacob-Victoria 184.50 oval
      9 Regent 140.64 cushion
      10 Paragon 137.82 7-sided
      11 Premier Rose 137.02 pear
      12 Queen of Holland 135.92 cushion
      13 Zale Light of Peace 130.27 Pear
      14 Niarchos 128.25 Pear
      15 Portuguese 127.02 asscher
      16 Jonker 125.35 emerald
      17 Al-Nader 115.83 pear
      18 Taj-i-Mah 115.06 moghul
      19 Edna Star 115.00 emerald
      20 Koh-i-Nur 108.93 oval
      21 Mouawad Magic 108.81 emerald
      22 Louis Cartier 107.07 pear
      23 Star of Egypt 105.51 emerald
      24 Mouawad Splendor 101.84 pear
      25 Star of America 100.57 asscher
      26 Star of Happiness 100.36 radiant
      27 Star of the Season 100.10 pear

       

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      Menjana Pendapatan Melalui Internet dengan Kaedah Google Adsense : Oleh Jay

      Posted by Welcome to Jay Twlight.Com on February 5, 2008



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      Salam Sejahtera selagi lagi. Diharap anda semua berada dalam keadaan ceria, sehat dan riang. Sambil anda bersantai dihadapaan Komputer anda dan melayari Internet, saya ingin membawa dan mempelawa anda untuk mencuba satu lagi peluang untuk menjana pendapatan tanpa memerlukan Modal dan juga masa yang banyak . Dengan hanya mengunakan dan menafaatkan Komputer andaatau pun melalui pusat pusat Siber , untuk tujuan menjana pendapatan , samaada sebagai sumber pencarian utama atau pun sebagai sumber pendapatan tambahan. Kaedah yang ingin saya sarankan kepada anda ialah apa yang disebut sebagai kaedah GOOGLE ADSENSE . Walaupun perkataan ini adalah merupakan perkataan bahasa English , tapi pengertian perkataan ini bolehlah dijelaskan dalam bahasa Malaysia dengan lebih mudah dan jelas bermaksud :-

      ” Google Adsense merupakan satu program perkongsian pendapatan daripada pengiklanan di internet oleh Google. Ia merupakan satu satunya program membuat duit di internet yang memerlukan syarat kelayakan yang minimum dan anda pun boleh lakukannya!”

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      Rahsia Penjimatan Elektrik Di Rumah Anda : Oleh JR

      Posted by Welcome to Jay Twlight.Com on January 29, 2008

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      Sila layari pautan dilaman WEB ini yang bertajuk ” ALAT PENJIMATAN LETRIK DI KEDIAMAN ANDA ” atau pun terus KLIK DISINI untuk mendapatkan jawapannya . Melalui Laman Web yang saya maksudkan ini , kaedah mudah yang selama ini kita tidak ketahui ada di perjelaskan secara terperinci. Alat yang disarankan adalah alat yang telah di diterima pakai dan sah disini undang undang. Selamat mencuba……

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      Menjana Kekayaan Dari Rumah : Oleh Jay R

      Posted by Welcome to Jay Twlight.Com on January 26, 2008

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